Biohacking. Basic process. Part 1 . "About poor lipids put in a word»


So, we continue talking about fats or lipids, started in the last article. And I apologize in advance for using scientific terms that I will try to explain to you in simple language. Why would I try to do this? It would seem that I can tell you everything in the form of a fairy tale like:"once upon a time there was a girl named Cell and she thought about what she would eat today for a lunch" ...But...I really respect you and hope that you are already went out from childhood. I immensely love and respect fairy tales and legends, cause in they are encoded very serious knowledge and instructions, some we will analyze on the course, about some others we will talk in other articles, but! On topics related to scientific developments, I will use the language that will allow you to independently understand the subject after some time. So… The molecule of simple lipids consists of a molecule of alcohol and fatty acids, and consists of three elements C - carbon, H-hydrogen,O-oxygen. Complex lipids except these three elements include additional elements and most often it is P-phosphorus, N-nitrogen, S-sulfur. Lipids are the main building blocks of cell membranes, affecting membrane permeability, enzyme activity, nerve impulse conduction, muscle fiber contractility, intercellular interactions, and immunochemical reactions. Lipids are an energy reserve material of our bodies. The last decades around lipids and carbohydrates serious passions inflamed. Let's try to separate the marketing moves of large companies and paid agitation from the real state of affairs. And for this, from the very beginning, "dot the "I"": in the body there is no needless and unnecessary, there are dynamic states in which various compounds are involved and they are all necessary, the question is in the number and proportions. And we will go consistently. Let's try to understand why lipids are so important for the body, and for this we will go through the main classes and their functions in the body Lipids or fats - this is the main energy reserve of the body, why, you ask, if we were all ears buzzed with words, what energy we get from carbohydrates? The fact is that from 1 g of fat at full oxidation, 9 kcal of energy is obtained, and from 1 g of carbohydrates – about 4.1 kcal, that is more than twice. It is worth asking yourself: "can the body use this clean energy?"- and the answer may surprise you: NO. Moreover, all the processes in the body are stepwised! And this is a very important point that you need to pay attention and always keep it in mind. The fact is that in the oxidizing processes is released so much energy, that if they will be occurred on the line, the thermal energy that is released in such reactions simply would be led to the death of cells due to denaturation ( folding) proteins. Therefore, our body stores energy in steps in the form of ATP and after that it uses this energy. And here the situation becomes even more interesting: aerobic oxidation of one molecule of glucose produces 38 ATP molecules, and the oxidation of fatty acids is much more, for example, the oxidation of one molecule of palmitic acid (fatty acid) obtained 129 ATP molecules, that is 3.4 times more! If we take an ordinary person with an excess of the normal weight of 15 kg, then this reserve will be enough for him for about a month, while the entire supply of glycogen will be enough only for a day. Therefore, as you understand, the body has not just so developed its protection system, especially when you consider that the subcutaneous fat layer also serves as a thermal insulator for your body. Someone might say, " We're not living in the times where it is necessary we have all these "inventories" useless"! And in some ways this person will be right, but there are a few " BUT": - firstly, there are several billion people in the world who do not know what they will eat tomorrow, and for them - the presence of this layer is a matter of survival - secondly, the boundaries of the physiologically normal reactions are quite narrow, you do not live in a constant temperature, and accordingly, in order to this problem will be decided, that the body has to solve this issue - thirdly, this resource the body spends on many different vital processes ( some of which we will consider further) and if you want to "declare a fight to fat/lipids", then you should think about the consequences No, I don't encourage you to be fat and eat chips and burgers with fries, I encourage you to be smart about these things and especially in questions, connected with your health It is also worth pointing out a number of nuances that are also important for the understanding of metabolic processes: the body does not receive pure glucose or pure fatty acids, we use complex compounds with food. And until the receipt of glucose or fructose in cells, are gone complex biochemical processes. First in the mouth, and then in the intestine, where with the help of enzymes and water is the process of splitting polysaccharides to simple components such as fructose, glucose, etc. At the same time, the process of lipid oxidation does not require additional participation of water, which greatly facilitates the process and also involves various enzyme systems. The neutrality of lipids serves as the basis for the fact that they are completely free to be in the cell on the one hand, and on the other for their transport inside the cells and to the mitochondria, thus the "energy stations" of the cell, are requiring of using of different transport proteins. Next, the process of activation and binding of the active molecule with carnitine must take place so that they can penetrate into the mitochondria. You can ask me: - What does all this mean, and for what were needed all these scientific introductory? - Does this mean that we should refuse from carbohydrates (about which will be discussed in more detail in other articles)? I'll start with the second question. No, we can't fully give up carbs. We just have to understand that we are dealing with two fundamentally different processes: obtaining fast energy and slow energy, while the slow process produces more energy. Therefore, the question in balancing nutrition: if you have an acute intensive load, the body will need carbohydrates, if you have a long, but not an acute load the body will burn lipids / fats. The process of fatty acid oxidation begins in the muscles only after 10-20 minutes from the start of training, so short training will not be effective if you want to lose weight and achieve fat loss. On the one hand, it was the first reason why it is vital for us to have fat in the diet, and on the other explanation for those who want to lose weight – if you want to lose weight, the monotonous long-term load in the form of a quick walk for two hours will give you a greater result than half an hour on the treadmill. The second reason, as I have already written, is to provide thermoregulation and mechanical protection, this function is performed by triacylglycerols. Third , - all cells of your body have membranes, it is the " skin "of your cells and these membranes are composed of lipoproteins – complexes of phospholipids and proteins (fats and proteins), while phospholipids provide their" flexibility", and so "frightening" all people cholesterol – their rigidity and stability. At the same time, derivatives of phospholipids are "signal molecules" - with their help cells exchange "messages" and "understand" what processes need to be started in response to changes in the body. Fourth, lipids such as eicosanoids are involved in a variety of processes, such as muscle growth, irritation, and immune responses to toxins and pathogens. Some eicosanoids are neurotransmitters and hormones. So, you should understand, that when doctors and scientists say about prostaglandins, prostacyclines, thromboxanes and leukotrienes, - they are talking about these group of lipids. I will not torment you with details of chemical transformations and formulas, I will stop on what functions they carry out: - changes in the tone of smooth muscles ( when someone experiences a spasm and pain in the intestine, be sure that this is the situation when you observe their work in the direction of reduction and relaxation) - body temperature rise - narrowing and widening of small vessels and bronchi - change in blood viscosity - the processes of "adhesion" and "detachment" of platelets-small cells that provide blood stop bleeding and working "patches" in your body. You ask, why you these the details? I will answer: out of 325 cases of sudden death - 301 cases of cardiovascular disease, and their basis is based on several factors, one of which – lipid metabolism disorders. ( By the way, in the remaining 24, also affect the processes of lipid metabolism). The proposed treatment programs at the moment show their low efficiency, because we are seeing an increase in the number of these diseases. More information about the causes and how to solve these issues we will see in the next articles on lipids. To be continued

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